Title page for ETD etd-03302000-15040013

Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Friday, Philippa Anne
URN etd-03302000-15040013
Title Comparison of Two Aerosolized Bronchodilators in the Treatment of Severe Equine Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Degree Master of Science
Department Veterinary Medical Sciences
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Broadstone, Richard V. Committee Chair
Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A. Committee Member
Crisman, Mark Virgil Committee Member
  • bronchodilators
  • ipratropium
  • COPD
  • horse
  • albuterol
Date of Defense 2000-03-21
Availability unrestricted
Aerosolized bronchodilator drugs are commonly used for treatment of horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Relative efficacy of sympathomimetic and parasympatholytic bronchodilators for relief of acute airway obstruction and improvement of pulmonary gas exchange was compared in 6 horses with COPD. Physical examination, arterial and venous blood gas analysis and measurement of end-tidal CO2 tension were performed at time zero, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after administration of aerosol ipratropium (0.35 ug/kg), albuterol (1 ug/kg) or placebo via an equine Aeromask and metered dose inhaler. Physiologic shunt fraction (QS/QT), alveolar dead space fraction (VD/VT) and alveolar to arterial oxygen tension difference (p(A-a)O2) were calculated using standard formulas. At time zero, horses demonstrated severe respiratory compromise and marked alterations in pulmonary gas exchange, indicative of alveolar hypoventilation, VA/Q mismatching and diffusion impairment.

Ipratropium treatment significantly (p< 0.05) reduced arterial CO2 tension and end-tidal CO2 tension toward normal, but significantly increased p(A-a)O2 from baseline. The change in paCO2 after ipratropium treatment was significantly different from albuterol and placebo treatment groups. There were no significant changes in response variables after albuterol and there were no treatment by time interactions. These results indicate that, under the conditions of this study, ipratropium (0.35 ug/kg) improved alveolar ventilation and had superior bronchodilator efficacy than albuterol (1 ug/kg) in horses with severe COPD. Marked impairment of pulmonary gas exchange persisted after bronchodilators, emphasizing that anti-inflammatory therapy and environmental control are also necessary for effective treatment of severe equine COPD.

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