Title page for ETD etd-04152011-164003


Type of Document Dissertation
Author Dharmarajan, Lakshmi
URN etd-04152011-164003
Title Structure-Function Studies on Two Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylases
Degree PhD
Department Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup Committee Chair
Bevan, David R. Committee Member
Carlier, Paul R. Committee Member
Onufriev, Alexey V. Committee Member
White, Robert H. Committee Member
Keywords
  • phosphoenolpyruvate
  • structure-function
  • active-site lid
  • inhibition
  • PEP-Mn2+ distance
  • anion-quadrupole interaction
Date of Defense 2010-10-29
Availability unrestricted
Abstract
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (Pepc) are two important CO2-fixation enzymes which share a similar reaction mechanism. Both operate through a lid-gated active site and have a hypothesized enol-pyruvate intermediate in their catalytic pathway. While PEPCK is an important metabolic enzyme in animals and plays a broad role in cataplerosis, gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis, Pepc reaction in plants catalyzes the first committed step in CO2 fixation in CAM and C4 plants via Rubisco. We are studying the structure-function aspects of both enzymes, with a goal of discovering new elements in these enzymes which can modulate catalysis. We have undertaken an interdisciplinary approach for this work and have shown that a combination of experimental and computational techniques can be complementary and can provide novel information.

We have determined that in human PEPCK, Tyr235 forms an anion-quadrupole interaction with the carboxylate of PEP and thus positions the latter with respect to the enzyme-bound Mn2+ for optimal phosphoryl transfer and catalysis. We have also identified Pro82 as a catalytically influential residue in this enzyme. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have noted that absence of ligands induces active-site lid opening in GTP-PEPCKS and we have made the first observation of the intermediary structures of the lid opening event, the dynamics of which is an important element that controls GTP-PEPCK catalysis.

We have determined the first three-dimensional crystal structure of an archaeal-type Pepc, i.e. C. perfringens PepcA. Our experimental data also provide information about the oligomerization of PepcAs and reveal that aspartate inhibits the C. perfringens enzyme competitively compared to the allosteric inhibition in Pepcs. Structure-based modeling has led to the identification of putative aspartate- and bicarbonate-binding residues in C. perfringens PepcA, of which Arg82, His11, Ser201, Arg390, Lys340, Arg342 and Arg344 probably play an important role.

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