Title page for ETD etd-05252005-153236

Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Scott, Brian Cameron
Author's Email Address brscott2@vt.edu
URN etd-05252005-153236
Title Evaluation of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Cure Rate
Degree Master of Science
Department Wood Science and Forest Products
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Kamke, Frederick A. Committee Chair
Frazier, Charles E. Committee Member
Loferski, Joseph R. Committee Member
  • parallel-plate rheometry
  • thermoset resin cure
  • dielectric analysis
Date of Defense 2005-04-29
Availability unrestricted
Cure time is often the bottleneck of composite manufacturing processes, therefore it is important to understand the cure of today’s thermosetting adhesives. This research attempts to characterize the cure rate of two commercial phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. Two methods are used, parallel-plate rheometry and dielectric spectroscopy. Viscosity data from a parallel-plate rheometer may be used to track the advance of polymerization as a function of temperature. This data can then be used to optimize press conditions and reduce production times and costs.

The research will further examine resin cure through dielectric analysis; such a technique could monitor resin cure directly and in real-time press situations. Hot-pressing processes could conceivably no longer require a set press schedule; instead they would be individually set based on dielectric data for every press batch. Such a system may lead to a more efficient and uniform product because press times could be based on individual press cycles instead of entire product lines. A more likely scenario, however, is the use of in situ adhesive cure monitoring for troubleshooting or press schedule development.

This research characterized the cure of two phenol-formaldehyde resins using parallel-plate rheometry, fringe-field dielectric analysis, and parallel-plate dielectric analysis. The general shape of the storage modulus vs. time curve and the gel and vitrification points in a temperature ramp were found.

Both dielectric analysis techniques were able to characterize trends in the resin cure and detect points such as vitrification. The two techniques were also found to be comparable when the cure profiles of similar conditions were examined.

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