Title page for ETD etd-08142001-154039

Type of Document Dissertation
Author Innawong, Bhundit
Author's Email Address binnawon@vt.edu
URN etd-08142001-154039
Title Improving Fried Product and Frying Oil Quality Using Nitrogen Gas in A Pressure Frying System
Degree PhD
Department Biological Systems Engineering
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Mallikarjunan, Parameswarakumar Committee Chair
Cundiff, John S. Committee Member
Flick, George J. Jr. Committee Member
Haugh, C. Gene Committee Member
Marcy, Joseph E. Committee Member
Wilson, James H. Committee Member
  • steam
  • frying oil quality
  • fried product quality
  • pressure frying
  • nitrogen gas
Date of Defense 2001-07-20
Availability unrestricted
The commercial pressure frying has been limited to frying huge amount of

products due to its dependence on the amount of moisture released from the food for

generating the desired pressure. This study investigated the feasibility of using nitrogen

gas as a substitute for steam in the pressure frying system. The effects of various process

conditions (source of pressure, frying temperature and pressure) on fried product and

frying oil qualities were evaluated. Frying experiments were performed on

breaded/battered poultry products including chicken nuggets (homogenous) and chicken

fillets (marinated, intact muscle). Efforts were also made to develop rapid methods to

determine frying oil quality and discriminate among fresh, marginal and discarded oils

using a chemosensory (also known as electronic nose) or Fourier transform infrared

spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR).

Frying temperature and pressure affected fried food quality. An increase in frying

pressure resulted in tender, juicier products with less oil uptake due to high moisture

retention. An increase in frying oil temperature resulted in an increased moisture loss, oil

uptake resulting in less tender and juicier products. Compared with frying using steam

released from food, using nitrogen provided similar or better quality fried products in

terms of moisture retention, juiciness and texture. The reused oils from the fryer using

nitrogen gas was better in quality than the system using steam as evidenced from the

physical, chemical and chemosensory measurements.

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