Title page for ETD etd-08212008-235034

Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Karmarkar, Makarand Anand
URN etd-08212008-235034
Title Smart material composites for magnetic field and force sensors
Degree Master of Science
Department Materials Science and Engineering
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Priya, Shashank Committee Chair
Abiade, Jeremiah T. Committee Member
Viehland, Dwight D. Committee Member
  • Magnetoelectric sensor
  • piezoresistance
  • core-shell
  • force sensor
Date of Defense 2008-07-25
Availability unrestricted
Piezoelectric material based sensors are widely used in applications such as automobiles, aircraft, and industrial systems. In past decade, attention has been focused on synthesizing composites that can provide multifunctional properties, i.e., same material exhibits two or more properties. In this group of composites, magnetoelectric materials are particularly interesting as they provide the opportunity of coupling magnetic and electric field. Another class of composite materials that are being actively pursued is piezoresistive materials. Piezoresistivity refers to change in resistance with applied stress and these materials are promising for enhancing the sensitivity of current generation pressure sensors based on silicon.

In this study, we focus on two composites systems: ferrite / Terfenol-D / nickel – lead zirconate titanate (magnetoelectric); and lanthanum strontium manganate (LSMO) – carbon nanotube (CNT) – silicon carbonitride (SiCN) (piezoresistive). Recently, Islam et al. have reported a magnetic field sensor based on a piezoelectric transformer with a ring- dot electrode pattern. In this thesis, this design was further investigated by synthesizing Terfenol-D / PZT laminate. The fabricated sensor design consists of a ring-dot piezoelectric transformer laminated to a magnetostrictive disc and its working principle is as follows: When a constant voltage is applied to the ring section of the piezoelectric layer at resonance, a stress is induced in the dot section. Then, if an external magnetic object is introduced in the vicinity of the dot section, the effective elastic stiffness is increased, altering the resonance frequency (fr). The variation of resonance frequency and magnitude of output voltage with applied magnetic field was characterized and analyzed to determine the sensitivity. The sensor showed a shift of ~1.36Hz/Oe over the frequency range of 137.4 Next, in order to overcome the need of magnetic DC bias in current magnetoelectric composites, a metal – ceramic core-shell composite structure was investigated. Metal-ceramic composite particles were synthesized at room temperature and their magnetic properties were investigated. The particles constitute a core-shell structure where the core is nickel-metal, while the shell is manganese zinc ferrite (MZF). Coprecipitation was used for synthesis of MZF nanoparticles comprising the shell, whereas nickel was synthesized by hydrazine assisted reduction of nickel ions in aqueous media. A core shell structure was then obtained by hetero-coagulation to form a shell of MZF around the nickel particles. Electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed nickel cores coated by MZF shells. Magnetization studies of MZF nano-particles revealed that they were not super-paramagnetic at room temperature, as expected for such particle sizes of 20nm in size. Sintered composites of metal-ceramic particles core-shell exhibited a magnetostriction of 5ppm.

Lastly, the thesis investigates the piezoresistive properties of LSMO – CNT – SiCN composites that were synthesized by the conventional ceramic sintering technique. Recent investigations have shown that CNTs and SiCN have high piezoresistive coefficient. DSC/TGA results showed that pure CNTs decompose at temperatures of ~600oC, however, SiCN was found to sustain the sintering temperature of 1300oC. Thus, LSMO – SiCN composites were used for the final analysis. A fractional resistivity change of 4% was found for LSMO – 12.5 vol% SiCN composites which is much higher compared to that of unmodified LSMO.

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