Title page for ETD etd-09202001-143947

Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Powell, Jodi
Author's Email Address jopowel4@vt.edu
URN etd-09202001-143947
Title The Sensory and Analytical Analyses of Nonfat Milk Formulations: Stability to Light Oxidation and Pasteurization
Degree Master of Science
Department Food Science and Technology
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Duncan, Susan E. Committee Chair
O'Keefe, Sean F. Committee Member
Sumner, Susan S. Committee Member
  • nonfat milk
  • liquid buttermilk
  • sensory analysis
  • solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography
  • light oxidation
Date of Defense 2001-08-02
Availability unrestricted
Sweet cream liquid buttermilk and skimmed milk ingredients were heat processed and/or exposed to fluorescent light to determine changes in potential flavor compounds. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/flame ionization detection was used to analyze the concentrations of the volatile compounds (2-butanone, 2-pentanone, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, hexanal, methyl sulfide) found in the two components.

Pasteurized unoxidized skimmed milk had measurable levels of 2-butanone, acetaldehyde, and diacetyl. Pasteurization of skimmed milk increased concentration of 2-pentanone and methyl sulfide to measurable levels. However only 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were detectable in oxidized skimmed milk. All liquid buttermilk ingredient treatments had measurable concentrations of 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, and acetaldehyde. Pasteurization of unoxidized liquid buttermilk increased the concentration of diacetyl and hexanal to measurable levels whereas oxidized buttermilk, both pasteurized and unpasteurized, had measurable levels of hexanal and methyl sulfide.

Nonfat (.3%) dairy beverages were formulated using the same components to determine if the volatiles in liquid buttermilk might enhance the flavor of nonfat milk. Triangle tests and hedonic tests were performed on the nonfat formulations to determine their overall difference and overall acceptance. There was no significant difference between formulations.

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