Title page for ETD etd-143862839711171

Type of Document Dissertation
Author Mitchell, Michael W.
Author's Email Address michael.mitchell@vt.edu
URN etd-143862839711171
Title The Effects of Embedded Question Type and Locus of Control on Processing Depth, Knowledge Gain, and Attitude Change in a Computer-Based Interactive Video Environment
Degree PhD
Department Industrial and Systems Engineering
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Beaton, Robert J.
Burton, John K.
Koelling, Charles Patrick
Williges, Robert C. Committee Chair
Duncan, Stel E. Committee Member
  • levels of processing
  • interactive video
  • attitude change
  • embedded questions
  • locus of control
  • knowledge gain
Date of Defense 1997-04-24
Availability unrestricted

The differential effectiveness of two types of adjunct

embedded questions in facilitating deep processing,

increased knowledge gain, and increased positive attitude

change was examined in this two-session laboratory study.

In session one, subjects completed a measure of locus of

control (LOC) orientation, as well as measures of pretest

knowledge and attitudes regarding drinking. Two weeks

later, stratified assignment was used to place 33 subjects

(ages 12 to 15) in one of the three levels of question

condition (no questions, factual questions, and inference

questions) to study a computer-based instructional

program about alcohol education during the second

session. Subjects assigned to either of the two embedded

question conditions were asked to answer ten questions

embedded between segments of interactive video.

Depending on question condition, subjects were asked to

provide factual information or draw inferences and

conclusions regarding the previous video segment. After

each question, subjects were asked to rate the amount of

effort required to answer the preceding question. Control

group subjects viewed interactive video without embedded

questions or effort rating scales. Reaction-time trials were

distributed throughout the multimedia program and were

received by all subjects to establish a baseline

reaction-time measure. Immediately following the

instructional program, subjects completed posttest

measures of knowledge and attitudes regarding alcohol.

Results provided limited support for the hypothesis that

embedded questions would facilitate positive attitude

change; however, embedded questions did not appear to

facilitate knowledge gain. Results also provided support

for the hypothesis that subjects with internal LOC

orientations would be associated with greater positive

changes in knowledge gain. Other hypotheses related to

depth of processing were not supported by the results of

this study. No differences were observed between

embedded question types on the reaction-time and mental

effort rating measures of depth of processing. Furthermore,

no differences were observed across LOC orientation on

either of the depth of processing measures. A number of

methodological issues are thought to have contributed to

this limited support of the hypotheses in this study. These

issues, and their potential impact and solutions are

discussed with respect to future research.

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