Title page for ETD etd-171823103974991

Type of Document Dissertation
Author McGraw, Tammy M.
URN etd-171823103974991
Title The Effects of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Stimuli on Spatial Representation in Drawings
Degree PhD
Department Teaching and Learning
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Burton, David E.
Dodl, Norman R.
Moore, David Michael
Holmes, Glen A. Committee Chair
  • spatial perception
  • children
  • instructional media
Date of Defense 1997-03-26
Availability unrestricted

Visual learning experiences are becoming

increasingly prevalent in education as symbols,

imagery and simulations replace traditional

text-based materials. Although the utilization of

images for instructional purposes is not a new

occurrence, most images used in instruction

have been two-dimensional representations,

giving learners little experience working with

three-dimensional images. Little research has

been done to explain the effects of

two-dimensional and three-dimensional stimuli

on the learning process.

This study examined the effects of

two-dimensional and three-dimensional stimuli

on spatial representation in drawings. Through

the use of stereopsis, a scene was projected as

both a two-dimensional image and as a

three-dimensional image. Students wore

polarizing glasses to enable them to perceive

the superimposed images as a

three-dimensional scene; whereas a single slide

was projected when the image was to be

perceived as a two-dimensional scene. Four

test groups were established from eighth grade

students who elected to take art. Participants

in Group A were ask to draw the scene from

the two-dimensional stimulus and, a week

later, from the three-dimensional stimulus.

Group B was asked to draw the scene from

the three-dimensional stimulus and, a week

later, from the two-dimensional stimulus.

Group C drew only from the two-dimensional

stimulus while Group D drew only from the

three-dimensional stimulus.

In all groups, participants were asked to draw

the scene as realistically as possible using a

graphite pencil. The completed drawings were

evaluated for evidence of spatial cues and the

students' perception and response to spatial


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