Title page for ETD etd-81797-112244

Type of Document Master's Thesis
Author Brenner, Megan Lindsay III
Author's Email Address mbrenner@hsc.vt.edu
URN etd-81797-112244
Title The effects of creatine supplementation on performance and body composition of female athletes
Degree Master of Science
Department Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise
Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title
Rankin, Janet L. Walberg Committee Chair
Cross, Lawrence H. Committee Member
Sebolt, Don R. Committee Member
  • creatine
  • female athletes
Date of Defense 1997-08-20
Availability unrestricted
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of

five weeks of creatine monohydrate ingestion on body composition,

blood metabolite, and muscular performance measures in 16 female NCAA

Division1 lacrosse players. Subjects were randomly divided into

placebo (P,n=9) and creatine supplement (C,n=7) groups. The supplement

group was administered 20g/d of creatine monohydrate in capsule form

for 7 d and 2g/d thereafter for five weeks during which time the

subjects were engaged in a pre-season conditioning program. Pre-and

post-testing consisted of a three-site skinfold analysis, bioelectric

impedence (BIA) measurements, hydrostatic weighing, isokinetic knee

extension muscle endurance test (5 sets of 30 repetitions at 180

degrees/sec.), blood lactate response to the performance test

(pre-test and 3 minutes post-test), a 1RM bench press and 1RM leg

extension test. Pre-,mid-, and post- values of blood parameters (BUN

and GPT) were measured in order to ensure the safety of the subjects.

Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, and

values are presented as mean+/-SEM for C and P groups,

respectively. Testing revealed that 1RM bench press significantly

increased in both groups (mean increase both groups: 4.5kg), and the C

group improved significantly more than the P group (6.17+/-1.96 and

2.84+/-1.84 kg ). Percent body fat by skinfold also decreased

significantly in both groups over time (0.52%), and the C group

decreased their body fat significantly more than the P group (1.2+0.92

and +0.29+0.81%). Percent body water by BIA also decreased

significantly in both groups over time (2.0%), and the C group

decreased their percent body water significantly more than the P group

(3.0+/-1.06 and 1.0+/-0.92 %). There was a trend for body fat measured

by hydrostatic weighing to decrease for for both groups over the 5

weeks. Although no significant differences between groups were found

in all other measures, significant time effects across groups were

noted (values are absolute mean increase for both groups) for body

weight (0.49+/-3.2kg), 1RM leg extension (1.36+/-4.1kg), BUN

(0.07+/-0.03mmol/L), total work across 5 bouts of isokinetic knee

extension (283.5+/-387.3Watts), and fat-free mass by skinfold

(0.70+/-1.18kg). These data indicate that a regimen of dietary

creatine supplementation designed to increase total muscle Cr content

significantly improved the 1RM bench press strength, and decreased the

percent body fat as assessed by skinfold and the percent body water as

assessed by BIA of a supplemented group more than a placebo group when

all female subjects are engaged in a common resistance training

program. Furthermore, chronic creatine supplementation appears to

have no detrimental effect on blood metabolites which indicate kidney

and liver function.

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