Type of Document Dissertation Author Gausepohl, Kimberly Ann URN etd-06072012-204353 Title The Storytelling + Design Framework: Design Guidance for the Concept Phase of Medical Device Design Degree PhD Department Industrial and Systems Engineering Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Winchester, Woodrow W. III Committee Chair Arthur, James D. Committee Member Kleiner, Brian M. Committee Member Smith-Jackson, Tonya L. Committee Member Keywords
- knowledge elicitation
- narrative inquiry
- needs analysis
Date of Defense 2002-05-25 Availability restricted AbstractThe National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) “Prevention
through Design” (PtD) initiative encourages the exploration of different methods to
foster dialogue between engineers and healthcare workers. Although engineers are
encouraged to follow a user-centered design (UCD) process to identify user needs
(ANSI/AAMI, 2009; IEC, 2007), NORA (2009) warns that engineers may “fail to get the
full range of healthcare worker input on the usability of a device”. The primary goal of
this research was to present storytelling as an elicitation method that addressed the PtD
call for methods that improve usability within healthcare.
This work provides three contributions to the PtD initiative. First, a conceptual model for
the role of storytelling in design, which represents a synthesis of narrative and design
research, is presented. The conceptual model explicitly states how the elicitation and
analysis of stories results in the identification of a design opportunity that addresses user
needs. Second, the Design + Storytelling framework, which guides designers’ use of
storytelling, is presented. An instantiation of the framework specific to the identification
of a design opportunity within an emergency room (ER) is investigated to determine the
framework’s impact on design. Findings resulted in the study’s third contribution:
design guidance comprised of storytelling guidelines, decision support tools for
storytelling method selection, and traceability support for design evaluation.
The investigation of the framework focused on two primary stages: (1) story elicitation
and (2) story analysis. Storytelling sessions, which varied in context, collected 573
stories (i.e., 441 habitual, 132 hypothetical) from 28 ER nurses. Qualitative analysts used
the framework’s instructions to identify and specify 383 user needs within the narratives.
Empirical comparisons of the compiled needs across groups informed decision rules for
elicitation method selection. The impact of the framework’s analysis instructions during
design practice was investigated. Student design teams analyzed nurses’ safety stories to
create a conceptual design for an identified design opportunity. Findings indicated a
trend for stakeholder experts to rank conceptual designs created by teams with the
instructions as more usable than teams without the framework’s instructions. The
theoretical and practical exploration indicated a positive impact on design.
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