Type of Document Dissertation Author Case, Sandra Lynn URN etd-06172003-080912 Title Fundamental Importance of Fillers, Cure Condition, and Crosslink Density on Model Epoxy Properties Degree PhD Department Chemistry Advisory Committee
Advisor Name Title Ward, Thomas C. Committee Chair Dillard, John G. Committee Member Ducker, William A. Committee Member Esker, Alan R. Committee Member Saraf, Ravi F. Committee Member Keywords
- moisture uptake
- silane coupling agent
- residual stress
- crosslink density
- silica filler
Date of Defense 2003-06-09 Availability unrestricted AbstractThe influence of silane treated amorphous fumed silica fillers on properties of the cured epoxy was examined in the first part of the study. Silica particles were treated with 3- aminopropyldiethoxymethylsilane (APDS) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) coupling agents. The filler and coupling agents decreased the mobility of the polymer chains in the vicinity of the filler leading to an increase in the activation energy for the glass transition and an increase in cooperativity. Fumed silica did not significantly affect moisture diffusion properties.
Next, a linear dilatometer was used to investigate the effects of cure conditions, mold types, and the presence of filler in the model epoxy. These studies revealed that there was substantial shrinkage in the cured epoxy on heating it through its glass transition region. The shrinkage was determined to be the result of stress in the epoxy generated during cure and could be minimized by curing at lower temperatures, followed by a postcuring heat treatment. Additional free volume in the sample increased the magnitude of the shrinkage by allowing increased stress release through increased network mobility.
Decreasing the polymer mobility by adding fillers decreased the observed shrinkage. The influence of the model epoxy crosslink density was examined by varying the content of 1,4-butanediol in the model system. Addition of 1,4-butanediol led to a decrease in the modulus and glass transition temperature, which resulted in a reduction in residual stress and subsequent shrinkage. Moisture uptake increased with the addition of 1,4-butanediol due to an increase in the free volume of the epoxy. However, even with greater moisture uptake, the addition of 1,4-butanediol to the epoxy increased its adhesion to quartz by promoting lower residual stress and increased energy dissipation. These results indicate that bulk diffusion of water is not the controlling factor in adhesive degradation in this system.
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