Title page for ETD etd-10052007-143700
|Type of Document
||Febbraro, Gregorio A. R.
||An investigation of the differential effectiveness of bibliotherapy and self-regulatory treatments in individuals with panic attacks
|Clum, George A. Jr.
|Eisler, Richard M.
|Finney, Jack W.
|Stephens, Robert S.
|Sturgis, Ellie T.
- panic disorders
- panic attacks
|Date of Defense
Several studies targeting individuals with panic disorder have demonstrated that Cognitive-behavioral
treatment (CST) is the psychological treatment of choice. CST interventions that include
exposure to panic symptoms, along with cognitive restructuring. breathing retraining, and relaxation
training are more effective than any of these components administered alone. Past studies have
demonstrated the efficacy of imparting the above CBT components in the form of bibliotherapy (BT)
in the treatment of panic disorder. The present study examined the differential effectiveness of BT
and self-regulatory treatments in the treatment of individuals with panic attacks. The present study
examined a much purer version of a self-help bibliotherapy intervention by reducing therapist
contact much more than prior studies had done. In addition, the present study examined the
additive effectiveness of self-regulatory components-self-monitoring (SM) and feedback (FB)--to
BT. Sixty-three participants who experienced a DSM-IV full-blown or limited symptom attack in the
two weeks prior to beginning the Self-help Project were assigned via stratified randomization to 1 of
4 experimental conditions: 1) BT alone (N = 17); 2) ST plus DML (daily self-monitoring plus
feedback; (N = 15); 3) DML (N = 13); or 4) WL (N = 18). The present study utilized a pre - post
treatment assessment design with pre-treatment assessment occurring two weeks prior to
treatment and post-treatment assessment occurring approximately two weeks after the end of
treatment. Treatment was 8 weeks in duration. Participants were sent pre-treatment assessment
and treatment materials via mail in order to minimize therapist contact. At post-treatment
assessment, participants were assessed either in-person or via mail/phone depending upon their
geographic location. It was expected that participants in all treatment conditions would experience
less full-blown panic attacks, limited-symptom attacks, avoidance, fear of having a panic attack,
panic cognitions. panic symptoms, state anxiety and depressive symptoms and increases in coping
strategies and coping self-efficacy than participants in the WL condition. Furthermore, it was
expected that participants in the BT plus DML condition would experience more change on the
above dependent variables than participants in the BT alone and DML alone conditions from pre- to
post-treatment assessment. A 4 X 2 repeated measures MANOVA revealep no Condition by Time
interaction or Condition effect. However, a main effect for time across conditions emerged.
Univariate tests revealed significant reductions from pre- to post-treatment assessment for full
blown panic attacks, avoidance. fear of having a panic attack. panic cognitions, panic symptoms,
depressive symptoms, and state anxiety. In addition, an exploratory 4 X 2 repeated measures
ANOVA revealed a Condition by Time interaction with partiCipants in the BT and BT plus DML
conditions increasing in coping self-efficacy from pre- to post-treatment. Partial correlations
revealed that change in coping self-efficacy was related to lower scores on the Panic Attack
Symptoms Questionnaire (PASQ) at post-treatment assessment for participants in the BT and BT
plus DML conditions. The results of this study are discussed in terms of motivational issues and
the effectiveness of such "pure" self-help interventions with individuals experiencing panic attacks.
|| Approximate Download Time
| 28.8 Modem
|| 56K Modem
|| ISDN (64 Kb)
|| ISDN (128 Kb)
|| Higher-speed Access
next to an author's name indicates that all
files or directories associated with their ETD
are accessible from the Virginia Tech campus network only.
If you have questions or technical
problems, please Contact DLA.