Communications Project

Document Type:Dissertation
Name:Janet Regina Wojcik
Title:Effect of Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage on Glycogen Resynthesis and Muscle Damage Induced By Eccentric Resistance Exercise
Degree:Doctor of Philosophy
Department:Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise
Committee Chair: Janet Walberg Rankin, Ph.D.
Committee Members:F.C. Gwazdauskas
Robert S. Schulman
Forrest Thye
Jay H. Williams
Keywords:creatine kinase, 3-methylhistidine, insulin, testosterone, cortisol
Date of defense:April 17, 1998
Availability:Release the entire work for Virginia Tech access only.
After one year release worldwide only with written permission of the student and the advisory committee chair.


This study examined effects of carbohydrate (C), carbohydrate-protein (CP), or placebo (P) beverages following eccentric resistance exercise on muscle damage by serum creatine kinase (CK), muscle protein breakdown by urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH), muscle soreness, isokinetic muscle strength, muscle glycogen resynthesis, and serum hormones. Untrained males (N=26) underwent a 9-day controlled meat-free diet and 24 hr urine collections. To reduce glycogen, subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% of VO2peak followed by 5 cycling sprints on day 4 evening. On day 5, fasted subjects performed 100 eccentric leg flexions at 120% of 1-RM and drank C (n=8, 1.25 g C/kg), CP (n=9, 0.875 g C/kg, 0.375 g protein/kg), or P (n=9) beverages immediate post-exercise (IPE) and 2 hr later. Muscle biopsies were taken IPE on day 5, and days 6 and 8 mornings. Blood was obtained days 4-10 fasted plus IPE, 3 hr, and 6 hr post-exercise on day 5. At 3 hr on day 5, insulin was higher for CP (24.6 ( 15.5 µIU/ml) and C (17.2 +/- 10.9 µIU/ml) than P (5.3 +/- 0.4 µIU/ml, p<.05). Glycogen was low on day 5, partially recovered on day 6, and normal by day 8 (p<.01) with no difference among groups. Isokinetic quadriceps peak torque at 60o/s decreased 24% on day 6 and remained depressed by 21% on d 8 (p<.01) for all groups. Soreness peaked on day 7 and CK on day 8 (p<.01) with no differences by group. CK increased (p<.01) over day 5 (delta CP 24.6 +/- 19.1, delta P 39.2 +/- 71.6, delta C 70.8 +/- 60.4 U/L) and was highest for C (p<.05). On day 5, CP had lowest 3MH (193.0 +/- 13.8 µmol/d) versus C (251.1 +/- 22.5 µmol/d, p<.05). Testosterone at 3 hr on day 5 was lower for C (4.2 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) and CP (4.3 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) versus P (5.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, p<.05). In summary, glycogen, muscle strength and soreness were unaffected by beverage. However, a CP beverage may be beneficial for reducing muscle damage and protein breakdown on the day of eccentric resistance exercise.

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