Scholarly Communications Project

Chemical, Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Lactose-reduced Baked Custards Made with a Low-fat, Low-cholesterol Egg Substitute


Veronica Tong Wu

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of



Denise Brochetti, Chair
Susan E. Duncan
William E. Barbeau

September 24,1996
Blacksburg, Virginia


Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of type of milk (whole; nonfat; nonfat, 70% lactose-reduced) and type of egg (fresh, whole egg; egg substitute) on the quality of baked custards. The egg substitute was a combination of dried egg whit e solids, dried low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk solids, and xanthan gum. Custard formulations served as prototypes for use in studies conducted in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech. In those studies, the effects of processing parameters on the quality of the custards were examined. The goal of all the studies was to develop shelf-stable lactose-reduced custard mixes that have potential for use in the foodservice industry. In Experiment I, chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of a dessert type baked custard, made with sucrose, were examined. In Experiment II, the same characteristics were examined for a cheese flavored, entree type custard made without sucrose. Results indicate that use of nonfat and nonfat, 70% lactose-reduced milk in place of whole milk decreased significantly total fat and cholesterol concentrations in both types of custard mixes. Lactose-reduced milk also decreased lactose and increased gala ctose concentrations. The egg substitute decreased total fat and cholesterol concentrations and increased protein concentration. In general, lactose reduction had little effect on the physical and sensory characteristics of both types of custards, but the egg substitute affected these characteristics. Custards made with the egg substitute had less intense yellow color and greater gel strength than those made with fresh, whole egg. These custards also were less bright and more uneven in color and had weake r egg flavor and aftertaste. Based on results of this study, development of a lactose-reduced custard is feasible. However, additional studies are needed to examine potential for use of the formulations in the foodservice industry. Because the mixes could be used as bases for other types of products, such as custard pies, filled pastries, and quiches, studies that focus on development of those products could help define the niche for the mixes in the foodservice industry. Because of the trend in todayıs market for reduced-fat, reduc ed-cholesterol foods, additional studies could be done to examine the effects of various types of egg substitutes on the quality of the custards.

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