PhD Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Tech in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Engineering Science and Mechanics
Romesh C. Batra, Chair
D. J. Inman, Prof.
L. Librescu, Prof.
L. Meirovitch, Prof.
S. M. Sun, Prof.
March 17, 1997
The three-dimensional linear theory of piezo-elasticity is used to analyse steady state vibrations of a simply supported rectangular laminated composite plate with piezoelectric (PZT) actuator and sensor patches either embedded in it or bonded to the its surfaces. It is assumed that different layers are perfectly bonded to each other. The method of Fourier series is used to find an analytical solution of the problem. The analytical solution is then applied to study the shape control of a steadily vibrating composite plate by exciting different regions of a PZT actuator. Numerical results for a thin and a thick plate containing one embedded actuator layer and one embedded sensor layer are presented. For the former case, the optimum location of the centroid of the excited rectangular region that will require minimum voltage to control the out-of-plane displacements is determined. Keeping the location of the centroid and the shape of the excited region fixed, we ascertain the voltage required as a function of the length of its diagonal to nullify the deflections of the plate. The maximum shear stress at the interface between the sensor and the lamina is found to be lower than that between the actuator and the lamina. The point of maximum output voltage from the sensor coincides with that of its peak out-of-plane displacement. The variations of displacement and stress components through the thickness for the thin and thick plates are similar.
The transient finite deformations of a neo-Hookean beam or plate with PZT patches bonded to its upper and lower surfaces are simulated by the finite element method. The constitutive relation for the piezoelectric material is taken to be linear in the Green-Lagrange strain tensor but quadratic in the driving voltage. A code using 8-noded brick elements has been developed and validated by comparing computed results with either analytical solutions or experimental observations. The code is then used to study flexural waves generated by PZT actuators and propagating through a cantilever beam both with and without a defect in it. The computed results are compared with test observations and with the published results for the linear elastic beam. The effects of both geometrical and material nonlinearities are discussed. A simple feedback control algorithm is shown to annul the motion of a neo-Hookean plate subjected to an impulsive load.
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